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Luke 20

The Authority of Jesus

1 And it came [about] one of the days of his teaching in the temple and good-newsing [that] the chief priests and the scribes with the elders stood against [him], 2 and spoke saying to him: Tell us in what sort of authority you do these [things], or who is the [one] having given to you this authority? 3 But answering he said to them: I will also ask1 you [a] word, and you tell me: 4 Was the baptism of John from heaven or from men? 5 But they reasoned among themselves saying that: If we say: From heaven, he will say: Why did you not believe him? 6 But if we say: From men, all the people will stone us, for they are persuaded John is [a] prophet. 7 And they answered [that they] knew not whence. 8 And Jesus said to them: Neither do I tell you in what sort of authority I do these [things].

The Parable of the Tenants

9 So he began to be saying to the people this parable: [a] man planted [a] vineyard, and leased it to farmers, and was absent [for an] appropriate time. 10 And in [the] opportune-time2 he sent [a] slave to the farmers, in order that they give to him of the fruit of the vineyard. But the farmers having beaten [him] sent him away empty-handed. 11 And he appointed another slave to send, but also having beaten and having treated that [one] shamefully they sent [him] away empty-handed. 12 and he appointed [a] third to send, but they also having wounded this [one] they threw [him] out. 13 So the lord of the vineyard said: What will I do? I will send my agape-beloved son, perhaps they will respect this [one]. 14 But seeing him the farmers were reasoning to each other saying: This is the heir. let us be killing him, in order that the inheritance become ours. 15 And having thrown him out of the vineyard they killed [him]. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do to them? 16 He will come and will destroy those farmers, and will give the vineyard to others. 17 But having heard they said: May it not be. But fixing his gaze upon [them] he said to them: What therefore is this written [thing]3:
The stone that the builders rejected
This has become the chief cornerstone.

18 Everyone having fallen upon this stone will be dashed to pieces, but upon whom it fall, it will crush him.

19 And the scribes and the Pharisees sought to throw their hands upon him in that hour, and they feared the people, for they knew that he said this parable towards them.

Paying Taxes to Caesar

20 And having watched closely they sent spies pretending to be just, in order that they lay hold of his word, so as to deliver him up to the ruler and to the authority of the governor. 21 And they asked him saying: Teacher, we know that you rightly speak and teach and do not accept appearances, but upon truth you teach the way of God: 22 Is it allowed we give tribute4 to Caesar or not? 23 But having known their trickery he said to them: 24 Show me [a] denarius. Whose image and inscription has it? And they said: Caesar. 25 But he said to them: So render5 the [things] of Caesar to Caesar and the [things] of God to God. 26 And they were unable to lay hold of his word before the people, and marveling upon his answer they were silent.

Marriage and Resurrection

27 Now some of the Saducees having come, who oppose [that there] is [a] resurrection, asked him 28 saying: Teacher, Moses wrote to us, If any brother die having [a] wife, and this [man] be childless, that his brother take the woman and raise up seed to his brother. 29 Now there were seven brothers, and the first taking [a] wife died childless. 30 And the second, 31 and the third took her, but likewise even the seven did not leave [a] child and they died. 32 And finally the woman died. 33 Therefore in the resurrection, of which of them will the woman become wife? For the seven had her wife.

34 And Jesus said to them: The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, 35 but those considered worthy to attain that age and the resurrection of the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage. 36 For neither are they still able to die, for they are like angels, and they are sons of God being sons of the resurrection, 37 because the dead are raised, and Moses revealed [it] at the bush, as he says6:

The Lord, the God of Abraham and God of Isaac and God of Jacob;
38 But he is not God of the dead, but of the zoe-living7 , for all live in him. 39 So some of the scribes answering him said: Teacher, you spoke well. 40 For no longer daring, no one questioned him.

The Messiah: David's Son and Lord

41 But he said to them: How do they say the Christ to be David's son? 42 For David himself says in the scroll of psalms8,
[The] Lord said to my Lord:
Sit at my right
43 Until I place your enemies
[for a] footstool [of your] feet.

44 David therefore calls him Lord, and how is he his son?

Jesus Warns the Disciples against Pride

45 So while all the people were hearing he said to the disciples: 46 Be giving heed from the scribes wanting to be walking [about] in long robes and philia-loving greetings in the market place and the first seats in the synagogues and first places in feasts, 47 who consume widow's houses and in pretense pray long; these will receive greater judgment.

1EROTAO (ερωταω) "Ask", but more polite, not demanding/begging as is AITEO. Both AITEO and EROTAO occur in John.16:26.

2KAIROS (καιρoς ) `opportune time', `proper time', `season'


4or "tax"

5or "give back"


7from ZOE "ZOH-ay" (ζωη)—Life 'collectively', interdependent, interconnected. Although it means 'life' in the conventional sense (for example: Matt.9:18, Matt.27:63, Luke.2:36, Acts.25:24, Rom.7:2, 2Cor.1:8, 1Thes.4:17, 1Tim.5:10, Rev.19:20), Jesus uses ZOE exclusively of 'life eternal' (with the possible exceptions of Luke.15:13, Luke.16:25). The other N.T. writers use ZOE in both senses—temporal and eternal, generally clear from the context. The Father is the 'zoe-living God' (see Matt.16:16). The Septuagint (LXX) in Gen.2:7 has "...[God] breathed into his nostrils the breath of zoe-life, and the man became a zoe-living psyche-life" (and see 1Cor.15:45); and Gen.3:20 (LXX) "And Adam called his wife's name ZOE, because she was the mother of all zoe-living." Contrast PSYCHE (ψυχη): an individual manifestation of life/consciousness. See John.12:25 where both ZOE and PSYCHE occur. Greek also has the word BIOS (βιoς ) for 'life' in the sense of biological processes.